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Chapter 1. 1The word of the blessing of Enoch, how he blessed the elect and the righteous, who were to exist in the time of trouble; rejecting all the wicked and.
Table of contents
This the angels showed me. The lofty mountains shall be troubled, and the exalted hills depressed, melting like a honeycomb in the flame. The earth shall be immerged, and all things which are in it perish; while judgment shall come upon all, even upon all the righteous:.
The behold the earth, and understand what is there transacted, from the beginning to the end of it. They behold summer and winter: Clarendon Press, ], p. Their whole number was two hundred, who descended upon Ardis, 4 which is the top of mount Armon. Or, "in the days of Jared" R. Hermon, derives its name from the Hebrew word herem , a curse Charles, p. These were the prefects of the two hundred angels, and the remainder were all with them. The giants brought forth [some say "slew"] the Naphelim, and the Naphelim brought forth [or "slew"] the Elioud.
And they existed, increasing in power according to their greatness. These devoured all which the labor of men produced; until it became impossible to feed them;. Charles notes that this phrase may refer to the destruction of one class of giants by another Charles, p. The throne of your glory is for ever and ever, and for ever and ever is your name sanctified and glorified. You are blessed and glorified. Literally, "Bring judgment to us from.
You behold all things, and nothing can be concealed from you. They have gone together to the daughters of men; have lain with them; have become polluted;. You know all things, before they exist. To him therefore ascribe the whole crime. Let them perish by mutual slaughter; for length of days shall not be theirs. More accurately, "bastards" Charles, p. And when all their sons shall be slain, when they shall see the perdition of their beloved, bind them for seventy generations underneath the earth, even to the day of judgment, and of consummation, until the judgment, the effect of which will last for ever, be completed.
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In those days all the earth shall be cultivated in righteousness; it shall be wholly planted with trees, and filled with benediction; every tree of delight shall be planted in it. Exterminate them from the earth. Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go tell the Watchers of heaven, who have deserted the lofty sky, and their holy everlasting station, who have been polluted with women. For they shall not rejoice in their offspring; they shall behold the slaughter of their beloved; shall lament for the destruction of their sons; and shall petition for ever; but shall not obtain mercy and peace. You shalt not obtain peace.
A great sentence is gone forth against you. He shall bind you;. I fell down and saw a vision of punishment, that I might relate it to the sons of heaven, and reprove them. When I awoke I went to them. All being collected together stood weeping in Oubelseyael, which is situated between Libanos and Seneser, 17 with their faces veiled. I perceived in my dream, that I was now speaking with a tongue of flesh, and with my breath, which the Mighty One has put into the mouth of men, that they might converse with it. As he has created and given to men the power of comprehending the word of understanding, so has he created and given to me the power of reproving the Watchers, the offspring of heaven.
I have written your petition; and in my vision it has been shown me, that what you request will not be granted you as long as the world endures. Or, "Likewise despite your tears and prayers you will receive nothing whatever contained in the writing which I have written" Charles, p. I proceeded, until I arrived at a wall built with stones of crystal.
A vibrating flame 20 surrounded it, which began to strike me with terror. Its walls too, as well as pavement, were formed with stones of crystal, and crystal likewise was the ground. Its roof had the appearance of agitated stars and flashes of lightning; and among them were cherubim of fire in a stormy sky. When I entered into this dwelling, it was hot as fire and cold as ice. No trace of delight or of life was there. Terror overwhelmed me, and a fearful shaking seized me. A fire was flaming around Him. To Him holy consultation was needless.
Yet did not the sanctified, who were near Him, depart far from Him either by night or by day; nor were they removed from Him. I also was so far advanced, with a veil on my face, and trembling. Then the Lord with his own mouth called me, saying, Approach hither, Enoch, at my holy word. My eye was directed to the ground. Go, say to the Watchers of heaven, who have sent you to pray for them, You ought to pray for men, and not men for you. Evil spirits shall proceed from their flesh, because they were created from above; from the holy Watchers was their beginning and primary foundation. Evil spirits shall they be upon earth, and the spirits of the wicked shall they be called.
The habitation of the spirits of heaven shall be in heaven; but upon earth shall be the habitation of terrestrial spirits, who are born on earth. No food shall they eat; and they shall be thirsty; they shall be concealed, and shall not 26 rise up against the sons of men, and against women; for they come forth during the days of slaughter and destruction.
Nearly all manuscripts contain this negative, but Charles, Knibb, and others believe the "not" should be deleted so the phrase reads "shall rise up. A destruction shall take place of the Watchers and the impious. Or, "their flesh shall be destroyed before the judgment" Knibb, p. There was a bow of fire, and arrows in their quiver, a sword of fire, and every species of lightning.
I came to a river of fire, which flowed like water, and emptied itself into the great sea westwards. I went to where all of flesh migrate; and I beheld the mountains of the gloom which constitutes winter, and the place from which issues the water in every abyss. Then I passed on towards the south;. Those towards the south were of a red stone. The middle one reached to heaven like the throne of God; a throne composed of alabaster, the top of which was of sapphire.
I saw, too, a blazing fire hanging over all the mountains. Over these fountains also I perceived a place which had neither the firmament of heaven above it, nor the solid ground underneath it; neither was there water above it; nor anything on wing; but the spot was desolate. Therefore was He offended with them, and bound them, until the period of the consummation of their crimes in the secret year. For in the great day there shall be a judgment, with which they shall be judged, until they are consumed; and their wives also shall be judged, who led astray the angels of heaven that they might salute them.
Nor did any human being see it, as I saw it. I exclaimed, For what species of crime have they been bound, and why have they been removed to this place? Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who was with me, and who conducted me, answered: Enoch, wherefore do you ask; wherefore do you reason with yourself, and anxiously inquire? These are those of the stars which have transgressed the commandment of the most high God; and are here bound, until the infinite number of the days of their crimes be completed. Columns of fire struggled together to the end of the abyss, and deep was their descent.
But neither its measurement nor magnitude was I able to discover; neither could I perceive its origin. Then I exclaimed, How terrible is this place, and how difficult to explore! Enoch, why are you alarmed and amazed at this terrific place, at the sight of this place of suffering? This, he said, is the prison of the angels; and here they are kept for ever.
And I saw the spirits of the sons of men who were dead; and their voices reached to heaven, while they were accusing. He answered, Three separations have been made between the spirits of the dead, and thus have the spirits of the righteous been separated. Moreover, abundant is their suffering until the time of the great judgment, the castigation, and the torment of those who eternally execrate, whose souls are punished and bound there for ever.
Thus has there existed a separation between the souls of those who utter complaints, and of those who watch for their destruction, to slaughter them in the day of sinners. Their souls shall not be annihilated in the day of judgment, neither shall they arise from this place. Then I blessed God,. I proceeded towards it; and perceived seven splendid mountains, which were all different from each other. Three mountains were towards the east, and strengthened by being placed one upon another; and three were towards the south, strengthened in a similar manner.
There were likewise deep valleys, which did not approach each other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of them. In length they all resembled the seat of a throne, and odoriferous trees surrounded them. Its leaf, its flower, and its bark never withered, and its fruit was beautiful. This tree is goodly in aspect, pleasing in its leaf, and the sight of its fruit is delightful to the eye.
Then Michael, one of the holy and glorious angels who were with me, and one who presided over them, answered,. When all shall be punished and consumed for ever, this shall be bestowed on the righteous and humble. The fruit of the tree shall be given to the elect. For towards the north life shall be planted in the holy place, towards the habitation of the everlasting King. The sweet odor shall enter into their bones; and they shall live a long life on the earth as your forefathers have lived; neither in their days shall sorrow, distress, trouble, and punishment afflict them.
There I saw a holy mountain, and underneath it water on the eastern side, which flowed towards the south. I saw also on the east another mountain as high as that; and between them there were deep, but not wide valleys. All these valleys, which were deep, but not side, consisted of a strong rock, with a tree which was planted in them. And I wondered at the rock and at the valleys, being extremely surprised.
Here shall be collected all who utter with their mouths unbecoming language against God, and speak harsh things of His glory. Here shall they be collected. Here shall be their territory. Then I blessed God, addressing myself to Him, and making mention, as was meet, of His greatness. Upon one side were trees; upon the other water and dew. Over them I advanced towards the east. In this garden I beheld, among other trees, some which were numerous and large, and which flourished there. The tree of knowledge also was there, of which if any one eats, he becomes endowed with great wisdom.
I exclaimed, How beautiful is this tree, and how delightful is its appearance! The gates of heaven stood open, and I beheld the celestial stars come forth. I numbered them as they proceeded out of the gate, and wrote them all down, as they came out one by one according to their number. I wrote down their names altogether, their times and their seasons, as the angel Uriel, who was with me, pointed them out to me. The northern winds proceeded from them, blowing cold, hail, frost, snow, dew, and rain. They blew over the earth strongly.
Through each of these small gates the stars of heaven passed on, and proceeded towards the west by a path which was seen by them, and that at every period of their appearance. This is the commencement of the word of wisdom, which I received to declare and tell to those who dwell upon earth. Hear from the beginning, and understand to the end, the holy things which I utter in the presence of the Lord of spirits.
Those who were before us thought it good to speak;. Until the present period never has there been given before the Lord of spirits that which I have received, wisdom according the capacity of my intellect, and according to the pleasure of the Lord of spirits; that which I have received from him, a portion of life eternal. When the congregation of the righteous shall be manifested; and sinners be judged for their crimes, and be troubled in the sight of the world;. And where the place of rest for those who have rejected the Lord of spirits? It would have been better for them, had they never been born.
Or, "when the Righteous One appears" Knibb, p.
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Neither shall they be capable of beholding the countenances of the holy; for the light of the countenances of the holy, the righteous, and the elect, has been seen by the Lord of spirits. Or, "for the light of the Lord of spirits will have appeared on the face of the holy, the righteous, and the chosen" Knibb, p. Enoch received books of indignation and wrath, and books of hurry and agitation. There my eyes beheld their habitations with the angels, and their resting places with the holy ones. They were entreating, supplicating, and praying for the sons of men; while righteousness like water flowed before them, and mercy like dew was scattered over the earth.
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And thus shall it be with them for ever and for ever. He attributes this information to Origen,  though no such statement is found anywhere in extant versions of Origen. Outside of Ethiopia , the text of the Book of Enoch was considered lost until the beginning of the seventeenth century, when it was confidently asserted that the book was found in an Ethiopic Ge'ez language translation there, and Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc bought a book that was claimed to be identical to the one quoted by the Epistle of Jude and the Church Fathers.
Hiob Ludolf , the great Ethiopic scholar of the 17th and 18th centuries, soon claimed it to be a forgery produced by Abba Bahaila Michael. Better success was achieved by the famous Scottish traveller James Bruce , who, in , returned to Europe from six years in Abyssinia with three copies of a Ge'ez version. The copies remained unused until the 19th century; Silvestre de Sacy , in "Notices sur le livre d'Enoch",  included extracts of the books with Latin translations Enoch chapters 1, 2, 5—16, 22, and From this a German translation was made by Rink in Revised editions appeared in , , and In , Laurence also released the first Ethiopic text of 1 Enoch published in the West, under the title: Libri Enoch Prophetae Versio Aethiopica.
The text, divided into chapters, was soon considered unreliable as it was the transcription of a single Ethiopic manuscript. Two other translations came out around the same time: However, both are considered to be poor—the translation most of all—and is discussed in Hoffmann. The first critical edition, based on five manuscripts, appeared in as Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem editus, cum variis lectionibus , by August Dillmann.
It was considered the standard edition of 1 Enoch until the work of Charles. His translation and commentary of the Ethiopic text already represented an important advancement, as it was based on ten additional manuscripts. Charles published a new critical edition of the Ethiopic text, using 23 Ethiopic manuscripts and all available sources at his time. The English translation of the reconstructed text appeared in , and the same year in his collection of The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.
The publication, in the early s, of the first Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch among the Dead Sea Scrolls profoundly changed the study of the document, as it provided evidence of its antiquity and original text. The official edition of all Enoch fragments appeared in , by Jozef Milik. The renewed interest in 1 Enoch spawned a number of other translations: In a new edition of the Ethiopic text was edited by Michael Knibb, with an English translation, while a new commentary appeared in by Matthew Black.
In George W. Nickelsburg published the first volume of a comprehensive commentary on 1 Enoch in the Hermeneia series. This first section of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers , the angels who fathered the Nephilim cf. This section is said to have been composed in the 4th or 3rd century BCE according to Western scholars.
The introduction to the Book of Enoch tells us that Enoch is "a just man, whose eyes were opened by God so that he saw a vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the sons of God showed to me, and from them I heard everything, and I knew what I saw, but [these things that I saw will] not [come to pass] for this generation, but for a generation that has yet to come. It also tells us about the luminaries rising and setting in the order and in their own time and never change: How all things are ordained by God and take place in his own time.
The sinners shall perish and the great and the good shall live on in light, joy and peace. And all His works go on thus from year to year for ever, and all the tasks which they accomplish for Him, and their tasks change not, but according as God hath ordained so is it done. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon , and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it.
And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three hundred ells: And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Michael , Uriel , Raphael , and Gabriel appeal to God to judge the inhabitants of the world and the fallen angels.
Uriel is then sent by God to tell Noah of the coming cataclysm and what he needs to do. Go to Noah and tell him in my name "Hide thyself! And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light.
And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And to Gabriel said the Lord: Some, [ citation needed ] including R.
Charles, suggest that "biters" should read "bastards", but the name is so unusual that some [ citation needed ] believe that the implication that is made by the reading of "biters" is more or less correct. And the Lord said unto Michael: And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is for ever and ever is consummated.
In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations. Chapters 37—71 of the Book of Enoch are referred to as the Book of Parables. The scholarly debate centers on these chapters. The Book of Parables appears to be based on the Book of Watchers, but presents a later development of the idea of final judgement and of eschatology , concerned not only with the destiny of the fallen angels but also that of the evil kings of the earth.
It has been suggested that the Book of Parables, in its entirety, is a later addition. Pointing to similarities with the Sibylline Oracles and other earlier works, in , J. Milik dated the Book of Parables to the third century. He believed that the events in the parables were linked to historic events dating from to CE. According to this theory, these chapters were written in later Christian times by a Jewish Christian to enhance Christian beliefs with Enoch's authoritative name. Knibb would continue this line of reasoning in later works.
In , Robert Charles judged Chapter 71 to be a later addition. He would later change his opinion : It occurs in the "Noachian interpolations" lx. He sits on God's throne xlv. Though Charles does not admit it, these passages betray Christian redaction and emendation. These passages seem to interrupt the flow of the narrative.
Book of Enoch
Hannah suggests that these passages are not, in total, novel interpolations, but rather derived from an earlier Noah apocryphon. In addition to the theory of Noachian interpolations, which perhaps a majority of scholars support, most scholars currently believe that Chapters 70—71 are a later addition in part or in whole.
The Son of Man is identified with Enoch. The text implies that Enoch had previously been enthroned in heaven. The parable also switches from third person singular to first person singular. Charlesworth rejects the theory that chapters 70—71 are later additions.
He believes that no additions were made to the Book of Parables. Four fragmentary editions of the Astronomical Book were found at Qumran, 4Q This book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies and of the firmament , as a knowledge revealed to Enoch in his trips to Heaven guided by Uriel , and it describes a Solar calendar that was later described also in the Book of Jubilees which was used by the Dead Sea sect.
The use of this calendar made it impossible to celebrate the festivals simultaneously with the Temple of Jerusalem. The year was composed from days, divided in four equal seasons of ninety-one days each. Each season was composed of three equal months of thirty days, plus an extra day at the end of the third month. The whole year was thus composed of exactly fifty-two weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week.
Each year and each season started always on Wednesday , which was the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis , the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created. The Book of Dream Visions, containing a vision of a history of Israel all the way down to what the majority have interpreted as the Maccabean Revolt , is dated by most to Maccabean times about — BC. According to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church it was written before the Flood. The second dream vision in this section of the Book of Enoch is an allegorical account of the history of Israel, that uses animals to represent human beings and human beings to represent angels.
One of several hypothetical reconstructions of the meanings in the dream is as follows based on the works of R.
There are a great many links between the first book and this one, including the outline of the story and the imprisonment of the leaders and destruction of the Nephilim. The dream includes sections relating to the book of Watchers:. And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast into that fiery abyss. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep. The fall of the evil ones. And all the oxen feared them and were affrighted at them, and began to bite with their teeth and to devour, and to gore with their horns.
And they began, moreover, to devour those oxen; and behold all the children of the earth began to tremble and quake before them and to flee from them. The creation of the Nephilim et al. Similar references exist in Jubilees 7: The book describes their release from the Ark along with three bulls — white, red, and black, which are Shem, Ham, and Japeth — in It also covers the death of Noah, described as the white bull, and the creation of many nations:. And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: It then describes the story of Moses and Aaron Eventually they arrived at a "pleasant and glorious land" And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself unseemly.
And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that ram which had forsaken its glory. David replacing Saul as leader of Israel.
It describes the creation of Solomon's Temple and also the house which may be the tabernacle: This interpretation is accepted by Dillmann p. It also describes the escape of Elijah the prophet; in 1 Kings This part of the book can be taken to be the kingdom splitting into the northern and southern tribes, that is, Israel and Judah, eventually leading to Israel falling to the Assyrians in BC and Judah falling to the Babylonians a little over a century later BC.
There is also mention of 59 of 70 shepherds with their own seasons; there seems to be some debate on the meaning of this section, some suggesting that it is a reference to the 70 appointed times in Another interpretation is the 70 weeks in Daniel 9: However, the general interpretation is that these are simply angels.
This section of the book and another section near the end describe the appointment by God of the 70 angels to protect the Israelites from enduring too much harm from the "beasts and birds". The later section Jews were allowed to return with the Temple vessels that the Babylonians had taken. Construction of the Second Temple began"; this represents the history of ancient Israel and Judah ; the temple was completed in BC. The first part of the next section of the book seems, according to Western scholars, to clearly describe the Maccabean revolt of BC against the Seleucids.
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The following two quotes have been altered from their original form to make the hypothetical meanings of the animal names clear. And I saw in the vision how the Seleucids flew upon those faithful and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the Seleucids cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those faithful , and their eyes were opened.
And it looked at them and their eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep, and the rams saw it and all ran to it. And notwithstanding all this those Macedonians and vultures and Seleucids and Ptolemies still kept tearing the sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them: And those Seleucids fought and battled with it and sought to lay low its horn, but they had no power over it.
All the Macedonians and vultures and Seleucids and Ptolemies were gathered together, and there came with them all the sheep of the field, yea, they all came together, and helped each other to break that horn of the ram. According to this theory, the first sentence most likely refers to the death of High Priest Onias III, whose murder is described in 1 Maccabees 3: The "great horn" clearly is not Mattathias , the initiator of the rebellion, as he dies a natural death, described in 1 Maccabees 2: It is also not Alexander the Great, as the great horn is interpreted as a warrior who has fought the Macedonians, Seleucids, and Ptolemies.
Judas Maccabeus BC— BC fought all three of these, with a large number of victories against the Seleucids over a great period of time; "they had no power over it". He is also described as "one great horn among six others on the head of a lamb", possibly referring to Maccabeus's five brothers and Mattathias. If taken in context of the history from Maccabeus's time, Dillman Chrest Aethiop says the explanation of Verse 13 can be found in 1 Maccabees iii 7; vi.
Maccabeus was eventually killed by the Seleucids at the Battle of Elasa, where he faced "twenty thousand foot soldiers and two thousand cavalry". At one time, it was believed this passage might refer to John Hyrcanus ; the only reason for this was that the time between Alexander the Great and John Maccabeus was too short. However, it has been asserted that evidence shows that this section does indeed discuss Maccabeus. God was with them to avenge the death.
It may also be Jonathan Apphus taking over command of the rebels to battle on after the death of Judas. John Hyrcanus Hyrcanus I , Hasmonean dynasty may also make an appearance; the passage "And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to His house" may describe John's reign as a time of great peace and prosperity.
Certain scholars also claim Alexander Jannaeus of Judaea is alluded to in this book.