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“Politique,” Mercure de France, 19 September, , – Robert Baschet (Paris: Éditions Bernard Grasset, ), , pour voir le tableau de M. le général Lejeune, représentant une scène de guérillas. Etienne-Jean Delécluze, “Beaux-arts, onzième lettre,” Lycée français ou mélanges de littérature et de.
Table of contents
In the s, a number of changes shifted the focus of debates. These included an increasing globalization of movements on both parts of the debate, Sweden and the Netherlands were moving to change their legislation in two distinct and different directions, there was political instability in Eastern Europe and there was also increasing concern about AIDS , while state feminists were also playing an increasing part in policy debates.
There were however occasional dissenting voices such as the debate in Le Nouvel Observateur in , sparked by the Dutch legislation. A manifestation of abolitionism was the declaration of May 18, , published in the centre-left Le Nouvel Observateur , called " Le corps n'est pas une marchandise " "The body is not a commodity".
This was signed by 35 prominent citizens, and demanded that France and Europe affirm their commitment to the abolition of prostitution, resulting in a debate covering many aspects of the subject, such as choice, autonomy, voice, and agency. In , cases of pimping were tried, and sentenced to prison. Generally the judiciary were satisfied with the existing legislation,  although also saw the creation of a new unit of the Judicial Police using information technology to combat pimping and trafficking.
Transnational operators proved a problem to the police. The report of the Delegation named after its author, Senator Dinah Derycke   was critical of what it saw as the lack of commitment in the fight against prostitution, mainly the difference between France's official abolitionist position and what was occurring in practice. Although the report received a favourable reception in parliament initially, its political impact was limited.
Senator Derycke retired due to ill health and died soon after, while other pressures diverted the debate into other related measures, such as organized crime and trafficking and 'modern slavery'. Outside parliament, there was a new activism and demand for action, led by Bus des femmes. However, the new right-wing government elected in Jean-Pierre Raffarin was to completely change the way prostitution was perceived see below. Criticism of the dominant discourse came from prostitute' rights advocates, health associations, such as Cabiria Lyons ,  AIDS groups, and some activists who complained that sex workers were being treated paternalistically and denied voice and moral agency.
They demanded eradication of stigma and restoration of rights, access to health and social services, and better "working conditions". All parties claimed they spoke on behalf of and for sex workers, and shared a concern for their welfare, while denying their opponents did. The catch-cry of "to save the Republic" worked in the favour of the right and President Jacques Chirac and Jean-Pierre Raffarin who came to power as Prime Minister that year.
In justifying these measures, Sarkozy claimed large segments of the population were exposed to "anxiety and legitimate exasperation". Article 42 addressed the protection of women in prostitution, considered victims of exploitation, and these were amplified by the Minister for Equality in the Workplace, Nicole Ameline Sarkozy stated that the poor supported a tough crime agenda and that the general population wanted a stronger stand on law and order.
Passive solicitation had been previously decriminalized by another right-wing government, that of Balladur in Proposed Article removed the necessity of the police having evidence of soliciting, allowing 'dress or posture' to be sufficient. He explained that it was inconvenient for the police to have to obtain evidence of active soliciting. In the Senate, a Government amendment subsequently deleted reference to dress after a popular outcry. Furthermore, the new legislation allowed for foreigners to have their permits revoked for disturbing public order, allowing deportation to become a penalty for solicitation active or passive , even if they were legal immigrants.
It addressed trafficking, by defining it and attached penalties. In the case of alleged victims of trafficking, collaboration allowed them to stay and work till their case was heard. If an exploiters were convicted Article 76 , they could then receive permanent residence. Finally, article 52 allowed for annual reports to be published on prostitution in France, from onwards. Reactions included demonstrations and petitions. In the Senate, the measures were seen to be street cleaning, rather than addressing the causes of social problems and social exclusion , and that reconstructing prostitution as a law and order issue would merely drive it underground, depriving sex workers from access to services, and damaging AIDS campaigns.
It was noted that there was no action to deal with organized crime or those who might be exploiting sex workers. The issue of passive solicitation caused particular concern since it could mean that any woman could be arrested for the way she dressed, and it was particularly hard to define. The judiciary were equally unhappy with evidence that solely consisted of police testimony and were reluctant to convict.
The trafficking policy seemed more aimed at the porousness of borders than at actual criminals, while migrant sex workers appeared to be particularly discriminated against, since they were simultaneously 'rescued' and deported without in any way addressing their vulnerability. Calls for aiming trafficking policy at traffickers rather than sex workers came from the Senate Law Commission, the Delegations for Women's Rights in the Senate and National Assembly, as well as from the opposition. In the Senate hearings into prostitution that year, Claude Boucher of Bus des Femmes , a sex worker support group, described how sex workers sell sex to survive, unable to make ends meet on social security or the minimum wage.
To treat them as criminals, she argued, would just make them more vulnerable. Sarkozy did not attempt to produce a comprehensive policy on prostitution, but rather a quick fix, addressing immediate concerns of voters in terms of visibility. This avoided inconveniencing the middle-class clients, who might have created more opposition. The governmental policy tended to portray all immigrant women in prostitution, the most vulnerable, as victims of trafficking and exploitation, and their pimps as "foreigners".
In , the police dismantled many trafficking networks, mainly involving Eastern Europe and Africa. The effects were largely those of displacement, pushing their activities into isolated areas, and the am timeslot, isolated them from service agencies, exposed them to violence and destroyed the historical working relationship with the police.
By "rescuing" these victims of trafficking and returning them home, he proposed to solve the situation. The offense that we are creating must come to their aid I hope that these women will have a better future than facing degrading encounters night after night". In drawing this distinction, Sarkozy made frequent reference to the inability to speak French, constructing the issue as a defense of French.
He suggested that this made them vulnerable to exploitation, and that the Police would take them home. This last point became a target of those who believed they were being sent back to the conditions that made them leave in the first place. Changes to trafficking policy in were more influenced by European and international influence than domestic concerns, but trafficking was finally defined as well as giving victims residence permits in exchange for testimony.
Critics doubted the practicality or whether the benefits were equally distributed between the women and the authorities, an expression of the tension between human rights and public security. In April , Senator Nicole Borvo PCF attempted to introduce a private bill to repeal the Sarkozy law, arguing that it had been ineffective, and turned victims into criminals.
The framework was very similar to the Deryck report, depicting prostitution as violence rather than law and order, and seeking punishment of exploiters, but also measures for prevention and support. The sale of sexual acts means women's bodies are made available for men, independently of the wishes of those women. In October and November , French lawmakers began debating a proposal to punish customers of prostitution.
Within the National Assembly, most of those who supported the bill were MPs from the Socialist Party , which dominates the house. Critics  say most of the frames nuisance, victim, deviant, security threat in which sex work is discussed in France are constructed without the input of sex workers who are depicted as voiceless and agencyless.
There are exceptions such as the French lesbian feminist Claudie Lesselier. CSA,  a polling organization, has carried out several surveys on prostitution in France. A telephone survey analyzed French attitudes about prostitution. When analyzed and broken down by age and gender, the survey showed that some people gave contradictory answers: For example, some people appeared to favor both the re-opening of the maisons brothels and the interdiction of all forms of prostitution probably believing that both solutions would work, as the survey showed that most people were dissatisfied with the existing legal situation.
Older people and men were more accepting of the idea of having legalized brothels. Studies from estimated that about 15, - 20, women work as prostitutes in France. Sex work in France, like other countries takes many forms. These include street prostitution , escort services , bars, and apartment prostitution. Street prostitution is partly controlled by pimps, while other workers are autonomous prostitutes. In some areas, such as Lyon or the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, sex workers use vans see illustration.
Escort services where one hires a woman or man for "entertainment" or companionship, but usually including sex, are less common in France, compared to North America. In bars , women try to induce men to buy expensive drinks along with sexual acts. Prices are set by the bar owner, and the money is shared between the owner and the prostitute.
Pigalle peepshows are well known for practicing such scams. Prostitution in apartments is advertised in adult newspapers and magazines. Swingers' clubs are places where partner-swapping occurs and sometimes paid prostitutes are in attendance, as well as "amateur" women and couples who get in without paying the flat-rate charge of about 80 to euros that men pay, including food, drink and unlimited sex sessions, with the added twist that these are performed in the open in full view of all the guests.
Brothels Maisons closes remain illegal, but operate discreetly and clandestinely. Since their official closure in , there have been periodic calls for their re-opening. A proposal by Chantal Brunel for a return to regulated brothels was opposed by French sex workers see Politics, above. Meanwhile, Spain has exploited the difference between the two countries by opening brothels along the French-Spanish border. Nicolas Sarkozy recognized that the traditional sex worker was part of France's national cultural heritage. It exhibits Polissons et galipettes , a collection of short erotic silent movies that were used to entertain brothel visitors, and copies of Le Guide Rose , a contemporary brothel guide that also carried advertising.
An exhibition about historical Paris brothels took place from November to January in an art gallery across the street from the former Le Chabanais. France is a destination, transit, and a limited source country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking. Sex trafficking networks controlled by Nigerians, Bulgarians, Romanians , Chinese, and French citizens force women into prostitution through debt bondage , physical force, and psychological coercion, including the invocation of voodoo and drug addiction.
The number of children exploited in commercial sex has increased in recent years. The government estimates the majority of the 30, people in prostitution in France, about 90 percent of whom are foreign, are likely trafficking victims. Trafficking of male victims for sex trafficking has increased. Nantes had , inhabitants in , the largest population in its history. Although it was the largest city in Brittany during the Middle Ages , it was smaller than three other north-western towns: Angers , Tours and Caen.
In it annexed the neighbouring communes of Doulon and Chantenay, gaining almost 30, inhabitants. Population growth was slower during the 20th century, remaining under , from the s to the s primarily because urban growth spread to surrounding communes. Since the population of Nantes began to rise due to redevelopment,  and its urban area has continued to experience population growth.
The Nantes metropolitan area had a population of , in , nearly doubling since the s. Its population is projected to reach one million by , based on the fertility rate. The population of Nantes is younger than the national average, with People over age 60 account for Single-person households are Students generally come from within the region, and working people are often from Paris.
Nantes has long had ethnic minorities. Spanish, Portuguese and Italian communities were mentioned during the 16th century, and an Irish Jacobite community appeared a century later. However, immigration has always been lower in Nantes than in other large French cities. The city's foreign population has been stable since , half the average for other French cities of similar size. In this category had 24, people in Nantes, or 8.
Their primary countries of origin were Algeria Other African countries accounted for Nantes is historically a Catholic city, with a cathedral , two minor basilicas , about 40 churches and around 20 chapels. Western France is traditionally religious, and the Catholic influence on Nantes was more persistent than in other large French cities. The main Protestant church belongs to the United Protestant Church of France , but the city also has a number of newer Evangelical and Baptist churches. The city has one synagogue , built in Nantes' first mosque was built in , with three more built in The local dialect in Nantes is Gallo , spoken by some in Upper Brittany.
Nantes, as a large city, has been a stronghold of standard French. A local dialect parler nantais is sometimes mentioned by the press, but its existence is dubious and its vocabulary mainly the result of rural emigration. Since then, the city has supported its six bilingual schools and introduced bilingual signage. For centuries, Nantes' economy was linked to the Loire and the Atlantic; the city had France's largest harbour in the 18th century.
The Nantes region is France's largest food producer; the city has recently become a hub of innovation in food security, with laboratories and firms such as Eurofins Scientific. Nantes experienced deindustrialisation after port activity in Saint-Nazaire largely ceased, culminating in the closure of the shipyards. At that time, the city attempted to attract service firms. Nantes capitalised on its culture and proximity to the sea to present itself as creative and modern. Capgemini management consulting , SNCF rail and Bouygues Telecom opened large offices in the city, followed by smaller companies.
The metropolitan area has ten large shopping centres; the largest, Atlantis in Saint-Herblain , is a mall with shops and several superstores including IKEA. With a business incubator , it has companies and 71 research and higher-education facilities and specialises in biopharmaceuticals , information technology , renewable energy , mechanics, food production and naval engineering.
Nantes' cityscape is primarily recent, with more buildings built during the 20th century than in any other era. Because of its sturdiness, granite was often used for foundations. Old buildings on the former Feydeau Island and the neighbouring embankments often lean because they were built on damp soil. Nantes has a few structures dating to antiquity and the early Middle Ages.
Remnants of the third-century Roman city wall exist in the old town.rithereskestra.ga
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Although many of the walls were destroyed in the 18th century, some segments such as Porte Saint-Pierre, built in survived. Several 15th- and 16th-century half-timbered houses still stand in Le Bouffay, an ancient area corresponding to Nantes' medieval core  which is bordered by Nantes Cathedral and the Castle of the Dukes of Brittany. The large, Gothic cathedral replaced an earlier Romanesque church. Its construction took years, from to Begun in , many of its current buildings date to the 15th century. Although the castle had a military role, it was also a residence for the ducal court.
Granite towers on the outside hide delicate tuffeau-stone ornaments on its inner facades, designed in Flamboyant style with Italianate influence. A municipal belfry clock originally on a tower of Bouffay Castle, a prison demolished after the French Revolution was added to the church in After the Renaissance , Nantes developed west of its medieval core along new embankments.
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Trade-derived wealth permitted the construction of many public monuments during the 18th century, most designed by the neoclassical architects Jean-Baptiste Ceineray and Mathurin Crucy. Place Royale was completed in , and the large fountain added in Its statues represent the city of Nantes, the Loire and its main tributaries. This architecture has been called "Nantais baroque ".
Most of Nantes' churches were rebuilt during the 19th century, a period of population growth and religious revival after the French Revolution. Most were rebuilt in Gothic Revival style , including the city's two basilicas: The first, built between and , was one of France's first Gothic Revival projects. The latter was built between and , after the Franco-Prussian War which triggered another Catholic revival in France. Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Port, near the Loire, is an example of 19th-century neoclassicism. Built in , its iconic dome was inspired by that of Les Invalides in Paris.
Industrial architecture includes several factories converted into leisure and business space, primarily on the Isle of Nantes. Two cranes in the former harbour, dating to the s and s, have also become landmarks. Recent architecture is dominated by postwar concrete reconstructions, modernist buildings and examples of contemporary architecture such as the courts of justice, designed by Jean Nouvel in Nantes has several museums.
The Fine Art Museum is the city's largest. Opened in , it has an extensive collection ranging from Italian Renaissance paintings to contemporary sculpture. Items include paintings, sculptures, photographs, maps and furniture displayed to illustrate major points of Nantes history such as the Atlantic slave trade , industrialisation and the Second World War.
The building is a Romanesque Revival mansion facing a 15th-century manor.
Collections include a golden reliquary made for Anne of Brittany 's heart, medieval statues and timber frames, coins, weapons, jewellery, manuscripts and archaeological finds. It has more than 1. With , visitors in , the Machines were the most-visited non-free site in Loire-Atlantique.
Owned by the city council, it is used for contemporary-art exhibitions. The former LU biscuit factory, facing the castle, has been converted into Le Lieu unique. It includes a Turkish bath , restaurant and bookshop and hosts art exhibits, drama, music and dance performances. La Fabrique, a cultural entity managed by the city, has three sites which include music studios and concert venues. The largest is Stereolux, specialising in rock concerts, experimental happenings and other contemporary performances. The seat Pannonica specialises in jazz , and the nearby seat Salle Paul-Fort is dedicated to contemporary French singers.
The Royal de Luxe street theatre company moved to Nantes in , and has produced a number of shows in the city. The company is noted for its large marionettes including a giraffe, the Little Giant and the Sultan's Elephant , and has also performed in Lisbon , Berlin , London and Santiago. The Machines sponsor theatre, dance, concerts, ice-sculpting shows and performances for children in the spring and fall and at Christmastime. Estuaire contemporary-art exhibitions were held along the Loire estuary in , and A route a green line painted on the pavement helps visitors make the voyage between the exhibitions and the city's major landmarks.
Some works of art are permanent, and others are used for a summer. The original one-day festival now lasts for five days. The concept has been exported to Bilbao , Tokyo and Warsaw , and the festival sold a record , tickets in Annual attendance is about , The Scopitone festival is dedicated to digital art , and Utopiales is an international science fiction festival. A path along the Loire river banks, between the Anne-de-Bretagne Bridge and the Victor-Schoelcher footbridge begins the Nantes slavery memorial.
The path is covered in 2, spaced glass inserts, with 1, of them commemorating the names of slave ships and their port dates in Nantes. The other inserts name ports in Africa , the Americas , and the area around the Indian Ocean. The path and surrounding 1. Other etchings of quotes by figures like Nelson Mandela and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. These quotes come from across the globe, from all four continents affected by the slave trade, and span over five centuries, from the 17th to the 21st. At the end of the hall, toward the exit, is a room with the timeline of slavery as it became abolished in various countries around the world.
Two of Demy's films were set and shot in Nantes: Lola and A Room in Town Nantes appears in a number of songs, the best-known to non-French audiences being 's "Nantes" by the American band Beirut. The city is mentioned in about 50 folk songs, making it the most-sung-about city in France after Paris. Turner visited Nantes in as part of a journey in the Loire Valley, and later painted a watercolour view of Nantes from Feydeau Island.
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The painting was bought by the city in , and is on exhibit at the Historical Museum in the castle. During the 19th century Nantes-born gastronome Charles Monselet praised the "special character" of the local "plebeian" cuisine, which included buckwheat crepes, caillebotte fermented milk and fouace brioche.
It is the largest producer of dry white wines in France, chiefly Muscadet and Gros Plant usually served with fish, langoustines and oysters. Local fishing ports such as La Turballe and Le Croisic mainly offer shrimp and sardines , and eels , lampreys , zander and northern pike are caught in the Loire. Although local restaurants tend to serve simple dishes made with fresh local products, exotic trends have influenced many chefs in recent years.
Beurre blanc is Nantes' most-famous local specialty. Made with Muscadet, it was invented around in Saint-Julien-de-Concelles on the south bank of the Loire and has become a popular accompaniment for fish. It disappeared in with the abolition of French universities. During the 19th century, when many of the former universities reopened, Nantes was neglected and local students had to go to Rennes and Angers.
In the university was finally recreated, but Nantes has not established itself as a large university city. In , the Amiens native Choderlos de Laclos published Les Liaisons dangereuses where he staged a depraved nobility. Considered one of the masterpieces of 18th-century literature, the book has toured the world and is known as an Oscar-winning film adaptation. However, the great name of Amiens literary life is Jules Verne. He animated all intellectual activity, giving balls and parties, while his wife held a famous salon.
He often attended the library of the industrial society, which subscribed to numerous scientific journals. Engaged in local life, he was Councillor of Amiens from to Amiens does appear explicitly in his novels but there are however characteristic elements of the city such as the cathedral and the river. This is the case, for example, for the imaginary city of Ragz in Le secret de Wilhem Storitz.
Amiens in the year " where he portrays himself wandering in a forward-thinking city of Amiens. Since then, the city has built a tourist route from this text. He died in Amiens in , and he deeply marked the town's footprint, so that today many places, monuments and events bear his name.
In , Englishman John Ruskin published the Bible of Amiens, which was translated into French, extensively annotated and prefaced, in , by Marcel Proust. This book dedicated to Notre-Dame d'Amiens was the opportunity for Proust to recall his admiration for the English author and the Cathedral of Amiens.
A masterpiece written from his notes taken at the Front , the novel won the Prix Femina the same year. Several films or scenes from films were shot in Amiens and its surroundings. Amiens is a stronghold of comics in France. A whole generation of designers and Amiens writers make the city an important creative centre of the 9th art. The region is also known for " flamiche aux poireaux ", a puff pastry tart made with leeks and cream. The Summer Rambo apple cultivar originated near Amiens in the 16th century. In , the municipality formed around Gilles de Robien designed a new logo, incorporating the Fleur-de-lis and the Ivy leaf present on the coat of arms, placed side by side in red with a background of grey or white, depending on usage.
Document used as a source for the drafting of this article. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in France. For the battles which occurred nearby, see Battle of Amiens disambiguation. For the locality in Australia, see Amiens, Queensland. Prefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France. History of Amiens and Timeline of Amiens. Gare du Nord old postcard published by Caron No. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Cantons of the Somme department and [[: List of twin towns and sister cities in France. Stade de la Licorne. The former Stengel barracks converted into apartments 18th century, historic monuments, Convent of the grey sisters 18th century, historic monuments, Maison Cozette 18th century: The convent of the Visitation-Sainte-Marie 19th century, historic monuments.
Lar gibbons Hylobates lar. Red panda Ailurus fulgens. Covering over 25 hectares 62 acres , this park has many sports facilities: American football stadium, skate bowl , football field, play structures. Picard language and [[: The soup des hortillons: The bisteu or bigalan: Potatoes, onions and bacon pie.
Pork dumpling mixed with a panade and onions. Small round doughnuts and fried fresh goat's cheese and beef marrow. Golden yellow brioche crumbs and with an aerated texture, it is rich in eggs and butter. A French toast made from brioche bread cooked like a big pancake. Apple wrapped and baked in a puff pastry. The Dariole of Amiens: A popular pastry from the 18th century, topped with a cream with almonds. Magnentius —11 August , usurper of the imperial title 18 January to 11 August Ansgar 8 September —3 February at Bremen , known as Oscar or Ansgar , evangeliser of Scandinavia , Ansgar is the patron saint of Denmark Peter the Hermit?
He played a central role in the Dreyfus affair and provides evidence of the innocence of Alfred Dreyfus. Selector of the France national under football team , world champions in Daniel Senet , — , weightlifter , silver medal for the sub For municipalities with populations greater than 10, inhabitants, a sample survey is carried out annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is included at the end of the same period of five years. The first post-legal population from , and fitting in the new system which came into force on 1 January , is the census of For municipalities with more than 10,, the latest legal population is published by INSEE for all municipalities.
His house, now classified as an Historical Monument, was acquired by the city of Amiens in Reopened on 24 March after a year of work, the Jules Verne House is a museum. The University of Picardie is called "Jules Verne". Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 23 May Archived from the original on 2 June Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 29 July Archived from the original on 11 April Archived from the original on 23 September Archived from the original on 4 January Archived from the original on 25 December Archived from the original on 30 June Archived from the original on 3 September Archived from the original on 16 June Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 6 October Archived from the original on 18 February Noms de lieux de Picardie.
Amiens rebascule une nouvelle fois". Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 11 November Archived from the original PDF on 28 November Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original PDF on 11 November Retrieved 24 April Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 20 July Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 12 November Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 26 May Archived from the original PDF on 12 November Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 16 February Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 10 July Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 13 April Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 7 March Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 16 January Archived from the original on 19 September Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 9 June Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 1 March Retrieved 30 August Paris et ses alentours , pp.
Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original on 6 July Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 17 October Au fil des saisons". Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 6 March Archived from the original PDF on 9 May Retrieved 6 April Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 8 February Archived from the original on 23 June Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 2 May Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 17 February Office de tourisme d'Amiens. Centre international Jules Verne. Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 31 January Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 20 April Archived from the original on 2 February Centre Culturel Jacques Tati.
Archived from the original on 27 August Archived from the original on 22 February Archived from the original on 21 February Archived from the original on 26 January Archived from the original on 24 May Retrieved 28 January JT de 13H de TF1. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 29 June JT de 20H de France 2. Institut national de l'audiovisuel. Retrieved 22 December Archived from the original on 10 November JT de 13H de France 2. Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on 29 February Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 16 March Retrieved 4 December Archived from the original PDF on 19 March Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 29 April Short Breaks Northern France.
Studying and Working in France: Manchester University Press ND. Alan Rogers France Alan Rogers Guides Ltd. Retrieved 10 June Archived from the original PDF on 4 September Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 22 April Archived from the original on 23 April Le Bel Amiens [ The beautiful Amiens ]. Roy, Paule; Duvanel, Maurice De Daguerre to Jules Verne, ] in French.